Apollo Investigation

Lunar Laser Ranging: A Review

by Andreas Märki, M.Sc. 

Laser Ranging
image: Goddard Space Flight Center


Andreas Märki presents the results of four LLR stations and compares them with the theoretical forecast. Only one station measured the expected return signal – that was in 1962.

This paper provides an overview of the Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) experiments. The measurement principle is explained and its theory is derived. Both contributors, the direct reflected light from the retroreflector as well as the scattered light from the lunar surface are considered.

Lunar Laser Ranging

Lunar Laser Ranging is operated as follows:

1 ) a laser beam is sent from the Earth to the Moon.
It is then
2a) reflected by a retroreflector and/or
2b) scattered by the lunar surface.

PDF Lunar Laser Ranging: A Review PDF

Andreas Märki

Aulis Online, January 2018


About the Author

Andreas Märki
Andreas Märki

Andreas Märki was born in 1955 and graduated as Master of Science from the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology. He is employed as a technical expert in the space industry.

It was as recently as 2008 that he began to notice inconsistencies in the Apollo record and realised that virtually no public person was willing to address this matter.  

Andreas Märki therefore commenced his investigation into Apollo 11 history and found disinformation to be more prevalent than is generally realised. He has published the results of his findings – mainly on the Web.

Contact Andreas Märki

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